The purpose of a flower show is threefold: to set standards of artistic and horticultural excellence; to broaden knowledge of horticulture, flower arrangement, conservation, and related disciplines; and to share the beauty of a show with fellow club members and with the public. The Garden Club of America Flower Show and Judging Guide, 2009 Revised Edition
FLOWER SHOW LINGO
ARRANGEMENT STYLE DEFINITIONS from the 2009 GCA Flower Show and Judging Guide
ABSTRACT DESIGN A contemporary design style in which plant material and other components are used for their intrinsic qualities of line, form, color, and texture.Abstract designs are characterized by boldness, an emphasis on space, and interest distributed through the design. An abstract design may be interpretive (a subjective response to a title or theme) or non-objective (without a theme). ARRANGEMENT Plant material and other components organized according to the principles of design to create a unified whole; synonymous with Composition and Design. ASIAN MANNER Adaptations for flower shows of traditional and/or modern Asian flower arrangement styles. BIEDERMEIER A tightly constructed round design traditionally consisting of formal rings of flowers; more contemporary versions use strong groupings and may include non-plant materials. BRIDGE DESIGN A multiple series of connecting arrangements using similar containers and/or plant material, each connecting with the other, giving the effect of unity. The placement need not be in straight lines. The arranger can criss-cross creating a complex, striking modern design. (When only two containers are used and the material in them joins together to form one arrangement, it can be known as a ‘Gemini’ design. CASCADE A design constructed of layered, loosely trailing plant material which appears to flow out of the container. CHALLENGE CLASS A flower arrangement class 1. At-the-Show All Components – mechanics, containers, plant material, and accessories, if desired, are supplied by the flower show committee. The committee may specify how many of the items must be used. These items should be as identical as possible for each exhibitor. (Exhibitor to bring clippers.) 2. Component Challenge Class: exhibitors are supplied ahead of time with identical objects, some or all of which must be incorporated into the design. The schedule dictates to what extent these components may be altered. The arranger devises how they will go together, supplies plant material and may add mechanics, etc., including a container. COLLAGE A composition made by attaching various fresh and/or dried plant materials and, optionally, other objects to a flat surface in low relief. CONSTRUCTION A contemporary design style with strongly geometric or architectural characteristics often employing natural plant material. CONTEMPORARY DESIGN A flower arrangement not following traditional styles, using imagination and creativity to devise new approaches to the selection and organization of plant material and other components according to the principles and elements of design. FREEFORM A fluid unrestricted contemporary design style, free from geometric outlines; restraint is used in the amount of plant material; manmade materials are used sparingly; balance is asymmetrical. FREE STANDING A design to be viewed from all sides. HANGING DESIGN A design to be: 1. hung on a solid structure (such as a door) or 2. suspended as from a frame or hook. Schedule must include staging information. Should be viewed at approximately 60”. HORIZONTAL DESIGN A composition in which components are arranged on an axis parallel to the horizon. INTERPRETIVE DESIGN An arrangement in which components are selected and organized to portray a theme, idea, occasion, mood, or atmosphere; not a design style and not to be called for in a schedule because any design in a titled class will be, perforce –Interpretative. INVITATIONAL DESIGN A class open to exhibitors by invitation only. JAPANESE MANNER Adaptation for flower show classes of classical and/or modern Japanese flower arrangement styles. LINE DESIGN MODERN LINE DESIGN A line arrangement with contemporary characteristics. A minimum of plant material is used with emphasis on contrast in form and texture. There may be more than one point of emergence for plant material. traditional line design: a design in which the element of line predominates usually emphasized by a restrained use of plant material; silhouette is open; voids exceed solids. LINE MASS ARRANGEMENTS MODERN LINE MASS An arrangement: a mass-line arrangement with contemporary characteristics. Typically, unusual components are used emphasizing contrast of texture, color, and line. Main directional line may be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. Generally bold and dramatic designs which may have more than one point of emergence for plant material. TRADITIONAL LINE MASS DESIGN An arrangement blending mass and line with an open silhouette; voids equal to solids; usually asymmetrical with a rhythmic flow. MODERN MASS ARRANGEMENT A massed arrangement including groupings of limited varieties of plant material; emphasis on bold design, blocks of color, contrasting forms and textures TRADITIONAL MASS DESIGN Usually a profusion of flowers of various forms and sizes arranged in an oval, triangular, or fan-shaped design; a closed silhouette, more solids than voids MASS / LINE ARRANGEMENT See Line mass arrangement. MINIATURE ARRANGEMENT A diminutive arrangement which with all of its components is not more than five inches in height, width, and depth. MOBILE A suspended design consisting of individual parts which can be moved by air currents MONO BOTANIC DESIGN A design in which three or more parts of a plant of one family or genus are used. Part may be stem(s), bloom(s), foliage, roots, fruit, etc. (Schedule to determine whether family, genus, species, cultivar or variety is the defining factor.) MONOCHROMATIC Tints, tones, and shades of any one hue.(White is not a hue.) PARALLEL DESIGN A design in which plant material (and other components if not prohibited) are placed in strongly parallel groupings with open space between; may be vertical, horizontal or diagonal. Additional components may be placed at any angle at the base as connectives. Multiple containers may be used, but design must appear as a single unit. PAVE See techniques PERIOD ARRANGEMENT A design with characteristics typical of an historic period; plant material need not be authentic but must interpret the classes dictated by schedule. REFLECTIVE DESIGN A contemporary design style in which reflecting elements are included; it is not a design placed in front of a mirror. SHADOW BOX / SILHOUETTE An enclosed niche with a translucent front covering in which a flower arrangement is placed; a light within the box creates a shadow of the arrangement on the front covering. STILL LIFE A design which combines two or more objects with plant material to interpret a class title. Objects should dominate and must convey the feeling of being true to normal size and function but may not be arranged to create a scene. STRETCH DESIGN A design composed of two units of unequal size, joined by a prominent stretch component. Length and strength of stretch component (which may extend in any direction) must be appropriate to other components and to its prominent role. Smaller unit must appear to have been forcibly pulled away from the larger. Dynamic tension is important. SYNERGISTIC DESIGN A contemporary design style including 3 or more containers; each unit either a partial or complete arrangement which, when combined with the others, makes a unified whole. TABLE CLASSES 1. Functional: a table exhibit arranged for the service of food 2. Exhibition: an exhibit in which the components – dishes, linens, plant material, etc. – are artistically arranged to present a coordinated design. The practical service of food should not be implied. TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED IN FLOWER ARRANGEMENTS a way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or performance of an artistic work such as, but not limited to: Banding: a decorative encircling of materials Basing: placing materials as a foundation of a design to create textural detail, decoratively cover floral form and other mechanics, and give visual weight to taller stems Binding: the process of physically tying materials together into units or bunches; the primary purpose is functional, to hold stems together or in place, but can also be decorative. Materials used can be man-made or natural. May also be used to join multiple containers into a single unit. Clustering: positioning the same material so close together that the identity of the individual is lost and the cluster functions as a single unit of color and texture Collaring: creating a frill or finish at the base or underside of a flower holder, bridal bouquet or arrangement using greens or other decorative material Framing: outlining a composition on one or more sides with material which clearly defines the total designed space, controlling eye movement and focusing attention on the composition Hedging: inspired by topiary designs, materials are trimmed into a form Layering: overlapping grouping of same or different materials to create texture; space between materials may be varied, resulting in anything from a scale-like appearance to a three dimensional texture study Pavé: a technique in which plant material is placed closely together to form a pattern, often creating a cobblestone effect that may be flat or contoured. Derived from jewelers’ term, “en pavé setting”. Rolling: manipulating flat foliage to form three dimensional rolls; may be secured with glue, staples, or by tying; may be used as decorative forms in themselves or as a way to hide mechanics such as tubes Sheltering: the placement of additional material over or around other component(s); enclosed space becomes a protected focal area Stacking: the orderly placement of like materials, either individually or in bunches, side by side or on top of each other with no space in between Terracing: materials are overlapped to create a stair-step effect; front to back placement Veiling: the layering of light materials, such as Asparagus plumosus, metallic threads, angel hair, etc. over more solid forms; softening and slightly obscuring the material beneath, creating a sheer overlay effect. Weaving/Braiding/Plaiting: interlacing materials to create a surface texture TRADITIONAL ARRANGEMENT A flower arrangement style based on inherited approaches to the use and placement of plant material and other components, usually radiating from a central point. TRANSPARENCY DESIGN A contemporary design style in which part of an arrangement is seen through a component – branch, mesh, glass etc. – which is an integral part of the design; strongly three-dimensional. Back or under lighting may further enhance the transparent effect. TWO-SIDED ARRANGEMENT An arrangement organized in one or more containers (joined to appear as one). Opposing sides present a composition usually thematically linked; judged as one unit. UNDERWATER DESIGN A contemporary design style where all or part of the design must be under water. VEGETATIVE DESIGN An arrangement presenting grouped plant material, placed as it grows naturally (geographically, seasonally and proportionally) VIGNETTE A functional segment of an indoor or outdoor living space containing furniture, accessories, and a flower arrangement; container- grown plants are permitted.
DESIGN DEFINITIONS ACCESSORY – Anything other than plant material, base, mechanics, background, or container used anywhere in a design and must be subordinate to the plant material.Accessories are permitted unless the schedule prohibits. ARTIFICIAL – Non natural; man or machine made. BACKGROUND – Surface or surfaces behind, under, and around an arrangement and must be taken into consideration in planning a design.The schedule should include background size and color specifications.If an attached background may not be altered, the schedule must state so. BALANCE – A design principle.Visual and physical equilibrium. BASE – Any object used under the container or under the plant material in a composition.Not considered an accessory.May include more than one related part, such as two discs or three triangles. CHROMA – A quality of color combining hue and saturation (amount of gray).Intensity; strength or weakness of hue. COLOR – A design element.How the eye perceives reflected light rays.All colors have three characteristics: hue, value(lightness and darkness), and chroma(intensity). COMPLIMENTARY COLORS – Two colors which lie opposite or approximately opposite on the color wheel. COMPONENT – That which is used in a design – a plant material container, mechanic, background, base, accessory, etc. CONFORMANCE – The assessment of how well the arranger has followed the rules of the show and the class requirements stated in the schedule.While for passing purposes conformance does not include correctness of style or interpretation, for judging it does. CONTAINER – A receptacle for holding plant material.In classes requiring all fresh plant material, the container may be of dried plant material but may not dominate part of the design. CONTRAST – A design principle.Use of dissimilar elements. CONTRIVED FLOWER – Pieces of plant material assembled into a flower shape. CREATIVITY – Artistic inventiveness; ingenuity in the selection and/or organization of plant material and/or other components. DESIGN – Synonymous with ARRANGEMENT or COMPOSITION. DIRECT COMPLEMENT- Hues directly opposite on the color wheel. DOMINANCE – A design principle.Marked by prominence of one or more elements over others in the design. DRIED PLANT MATERIAL – Plant material with all moisture removed. ELEMENTS OF DESIGN – Color, form, light, line, pattern, size, space and texture. FOCAL AREA OR FOCAL POINT – A dominant area or point of interest to which the eye is drawn. FOLIAGE – Leaves or leafage portions of plants; including ferns, grasses, leaf buds, leaf-like bracts, and leaves of succulents. FORM – A design element. The outside contour of three dimensional material. Applies to contour of an individual part or components, as well as to the contour of the whole design. FRAME OF REFERENCE – The area available to an arranger in which to stage a design.The schedule will delineate. HARMONY – The pleasing organization of all components of a design. HUE– An identifying color name, such as red, yellow, green, blue-green, etc. LIGHT – A design element.Includes natural and artificial light – within the exhibition hall, in a class’s staging, or within a design. LUMINOSITY – The quality of emitting light.Hues mixed with white becomes luminous. MANIPULATED PLANT MATERIAL – Plant material which has been bent, cut, folded, skeletonized, or otherwise altered from its natural condition.Permitted unless the schedule states otherwise. MONOCHROMATIC – Tints, tones and shades of one hue. NICHES – A space enclosed on three sides or a space defined by finite linear dimensions used for staging of a flower arrangement. ORIGINALITY – A new, fresh or novel concept in the choice or handing of plant material and/or other components. OVERLAY/OVER-DRAPE – Fabric or other material used over the staging (table, pedestal, etc) Not considered a base.Permissible unless the schedule has restrictions about staging. PATTERN - A design element.An overall design or silhouette formed by solids and voids, usually involving repetition. PEDESTAL – A plinth, stand, or column, free-standing or attached, used as staging for a flower arrangement.Usually viewed from three sides. PLAQUE – Natural materials attached to a flat surface in low relief to create a design.Plaques are three dimensional and usually representational. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN – Fundamental precepts based on natural forces.They are the same for flower arrangements as for the other visual arts – balance, contrast, dominance, proportions, rhythm, and scale. PROPORTION – A design principle.The size relationship of areas of design to each other, and to the design as a whole. RHYTHM – A design principle.The dominant visual path through a design usually achieved by repetition , gradation, and line direction. SCALE – A design principle.The relationship of the size of the individual parts of a design to each other. SHADE – A characteristic of color; a dark value achieved by adding black to the hue. SIZE – A design element.The physical or implied mass of plant material or other components. SPACE – A design element.Includes the space in which the design is placed, the spaces created within the design, and the spaces intrinsic in the individual components to the design. STYLE – A distinctive way to handle forms or elements; an artist’s own technique. Also a reflection of an historical period. TEXTURE – A design element.An object’s tactile quality which conveys an effect – smooth, rough, shiny, dull, etc. TINT – A characteristic of color; a light value achieved by adding white to the hue. TONE – A characteristic of color; a hue which is not at full intensity.Achieved by adding gray or the hue’s complementary color to the hue. TREATED PLANT MATERIAL – Plant material which has been dyed, painted, shellacked, varnished, flocked or otherwise artificially altered.Permitted unless the schedule prohibits. UNITY – The combining of parts resulting in a harmonious effect. VALUE – The lightness of color (tint), a mixture of pure hue and white; or the darkness of color (shade). A mixture of pure hue and black. VOIDS – Spaces created in a design by the absence or implied absence of solids(as important to a design as solids). WEATHERED WOOD – Dried wood whose surface has been affected by the elements.In classes requiring all fresh plant materials, it may be used as a container or as an accessory unless prohibited.
HORTICULTURE DEFINITIONS From the 2009 GCA Flower Show and Judging Guide
ANNUAL A plant that normally completes its life cycle in one growing season. In flower shows, classes for annuals may include those perennial, non-hardy plants blooming the first year from seed which are treated as annuals because of a short summer growing season, such as petunias and snapdragons. Non-hardy summer flowering bulbs such as dahlias or tuberous begonias may also be included. Such classes might correctly be titled, "Grown as Annuals," and include summer flowering bulbs or tubers. BLOOM 1. a blossom; an open flower 2. the powdery or waxy coating on various fruits and leaves, giving the surface a glaucous appearance BONSAI Pronounced "bonesigh," a Japanese word meaning "tray planting”. The horticultural practice of growing and training woody plants as artificially or naturally dwarfed specimens. Those specimens not following the classical principles established by the Japanese may be classified as "Grown in the bonsai manner". BRACT A modified leaf at the base of a flower or flower head; may be small and scale-like, or large, brightly colored and petal-like, or resemble normal foliage; not considered to be a bloom. BUD For the purpose of exhibition, an unopened or partly opened bloom BULB 1. a modified underground stem, which is typically very short, flattened, and surmounted by a group of usually fleshy, non-green, scale-like leaves. Bulbs are sometimes covered by a coat or tunic that is thin and membranous, e.g., onions and tulips; or fibrous and reticulated, e.g., Allium; or the scales may be naked, e.g., Lilium. 2. In horticultural classification corms, tubers or thickened rhizomes may be CACHE POT A decorative container, often used as a receptacle for a standard pot; permitted unless the schedule prohibits CASCADE A plant trained to grow downward over the edge of its container, emulating a waterfall: a bonsai style or a method of training chrysanthemums. CHALLENGE CLASS The challenge of growing one specific variety or cultivar of bulb, corm, root, tuber, cutting, seed, etc., to be exhibited at a flower show. The schedule states where and when the above will be distributed CLONE All the descendants of a single plant produced from it asexually by cuttings, division of root stock, grafting, runners, etc. These descendants are genetically identical. CLUSTER A number of fruits or blossoms spaced closely together on the same stem. COLLECTION Containing three or more specimens of container-grown plants cut flowers, etc.; judged primarily for cultural perfection and variety; pleasing arrangement is desirable; should be accompanied by a key card or diagram to identify the plant material. CONTAINERGARDEN A planting of at least three species or cultivars in an open container. The plant material must be culturally compatible, in scale, and arranged in a pleasing manner to suggest a garden. (See also Trough.) CORM A bulb-like, swollen under-ground stem stored with reserve food and bearing buds or growing shoots on its surface, e.g., crocus, gladiolus, cyclamen, colchicum. CULTIVAR A horticultural variety that has been selected and maintained in cultivation for particular horticultural attribute(s); usually propagated vegetatively to maintain its distinct characteristics. This term is derived from "cultivated variety." The correct abbreviation is "cv.", and the cultivar name should be a fancy name, capitalized, not italicized, and placed in single quotes, as in Clematis 'Betty Corning' or Fagus sylvatica 'Pendula'. (See Variety. CUTTING A part of a plant used to reproduce its exact characteristics by vegetative propagation DISBUDDING The thinning out of flower buds to improve the size and quality of bloom DISPLAY An exhibit in the horticulture division of a flower show of plants, flowers, fruits and/or vegetables artistically arranged; accessories permitted unless schedule prohibits; judged for decorative effect, cultural perfection, and labeling; should be accompanied by a key card or diagram to identify the plant material. A scale of points should be stated in the schedule. (See Collection.) DOUBLE POTTING One pot inside another generally disguised with top dressing; permitted unless the schedule prohibits ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS Native species whose status in the wild is listed in a conservation priority ranking system. Two terms are widely used: 1. Endangered: a native species in danger of becoming extinct throughout all or in a significant portion of its range due to one or more causes – including loss or modification of habitat, pollution, disease, competition, or over-collecting 2. Threatened: a native plant which without special protection is likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. ESPALIER A plant trained on a form in two dimensions, to be viewed only from the front. EVERGREEN A plant which retains green foliage all year, even during its dormant period (The term cannot always be applied with exactness as exceptions in leaf retention occur.) FAMIY Species. (Variants of species and hybrids selected by man in cultivation are termed "cultivars." See Cultivar.) FLORIFEROUS Bearing flowers, especially flowering abundantly foliage: leaves or leafage portions of a plant - includes ferns, grasses, leaf buds and leaf-like bracts FORMAL PLANT A trained plant FROND The leaf of ferns, cycads, and certain palms FRUCTIFEROUS Bearing fruit FRUIT The part of a plant which is seed bearing; may be edible or may not GENUS Genera (pl.) One or more species of plants closely related to each other and sufficiently distinct from other plant species so as to warrant giving them a generic (group) name (e.g. the genus lilium) GROOMING Procedures to ensure that a specimen presents the best possible appearance HARDINESS ZONE The GCA adheres to the USDA PlantHardiness Map. HERBACEOUS Without woody tissues in its stems; may be annual or perennial, hardy or non-hardy, deciduous or evergreen HYBRID The offspring resulting from crossbreeding between two plants which are different species or cultivars, or between distinct forms of the same species; can occur naturally in the wild or more often by human manipulation; may not come true to type from seed and should be propagated vegetatively to maintain its distinct characteristics INFLORESCENCE The characteristic arrangement of buds and flowers on the stem or branch; a mode of development of individual florets INFORMAL PLANT A plant grown in its natural form; not trained KEY CARD A numbered list of botanical and common names accompanying an exhibit such as a collection, display, terrarium, or trough which contains several genera, species, etc. Corresponding numbers are placed with each individual plant. A schematic diagram may be used instead. Each key card should be encased in plastic or treated with a waterproofing spray. MINIATUREGARDEN A scene of cut and/or rooted plant material, often with accessories, built to a specific scale MULTI STEMMED PLANT Plant having more than one stem; term used in connection with woody plants, usually shrubs NATIVE PLANT A woody or herbaceous plant indigenous to the region in which it is growing Natural Heritage Network: a partnership between the Nature Conservancy and state governments. Natural Heritage Programs (or their equivalent) exist in all 50 states. To obtain a list of endangered, threatened, and at risk plants in a specific state, contact a local program or the national website at natureserv.org. NON-WOODY PLANT A plant lacking woody (lignified) tissues in stems and branches; herbaceous PAIR Two of the same species or cultivars identically trained and shown in matching containers PAR CLASS A class in which entries are judged against perfection rather than against each other PERENNIAL A plant that lives for more than two years; in flower shows, generally includes herbaceous plants hardy to the area in which they are being exhibited PETIOLE Leaf stalk PROPAGATION 1) the natural reproduction of plants by spores or seeds; 2) the reproduction of plants vegetatively (asexually) by cutting, division, budding, layering, grafting, or tissue culture RACEME Same as spike, but with short-stalked flowers, e.g., Delphinium RHIZOME A thick, horizontal stem (under or above the ground) which forms roots, stores food, and sends up leaves and flowering stalks ROOT The part of the plant, usually subterranean, which generally originates from its lowest part and which furnishes nourishment, moisture and physical support SEED The fertilized, matured ovule of a flowering plant containing an embryo or rudimentary plant; one of the propagative parts of a flowering plant SEEDLING 1. a plant produced from seed 2. a young plant raised from seed 3. with fruit trees, a plant of any age raised from seed as opposed to one propagated vegetatively 4. in connection with daffodils and other bulbous plants, a new cultivar raised from seed and not yet named SESSILE without a stalk SHRUB A low woody plant which lives for more than two years, often many-stemmed, and of smaller structure than a tree; produces shoots from its base and has no single trunk. The distinction between a shrub and a tree is often blurred by environmental variations or by the nature of the plant. SPECIES A subdivision of a genus having certain distinctive and permanent characteristics in common; designated by the second part of the botanical name and generally not capitalized, e.g., Viola oderata, Viola pedata SPECIMEN A single plant,bloom, fruit, spike, spray, stalk, orvegetable SPIKE A lengthened inflorescence bearing stemless flowers, e.g., Gladiolus (See Raceme.) SPORE A reproductive body, simpler than a seed, produced by almost all non-flowering plants, e.g., ferns, fungi, lycopodiums SPORT A mutation; an abrupt deviation from type, resulting from a change in the hereditary material and producing a growth of a different visual form, color or character; must be propagated by cuttings or tissue culture to maintain these characteristics SPRAY A branched, many-flowered inflorescence usually on a single main stem, e.g., polyantha and floribunda roses STALK A stiff stem of a plant; any slender, supporting or connecting part of a plant STANDARD A form of topiary. The plant is grown on a single stem with the growth concentrated at the top. Staking should be inconspicuous. STEM Properly the main leaf and flower-bearing axis of a plant. In flower show parlance it may include the stem's branches, leaves, and flowers. SUBSTANCE Thickness of tissue structure of a plant part; usually refers to foliage and flowers SUCCULENT A plant with very fleshy leaves and/or stems usually filled with sap. (All cacti are succulents, but not all succulents are cacti.) SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES For the purpose of the flower show, ‘sustainable practices’ will be used for entries grown using organic materials and sustainable gardening practices, using no toxic sprays or synthetic fertilizers. TENDER A plant in need of winter protection if grown beyond its natural cold tolerance area TOPIARY The art of trimming or training a plant or plants into ornamental shapes in three dimensions. The plant can be single stemmed (see Standard), or multi-stemmed; it can be trained on a stuffed form (see Stuffed form); it can be one plant or several plants trained together to the desired shape. TRAINED PLANT(S) A plant which has been trained in other than its natural form – bonsai or grown in the bonsai manner, cascade, standard, espalier, or topiary; one plant or several grown together, depending on the type of training used. TROUGH 1. a container made of natural stone or made to simulate natural stone 2. container garden, miniature landscape, or artistically arranged culturally compatible plants (often alpines) TRUSS A cluster of flowers or fruits growing from one main stem, e.g., rhododendron, tomato TUBER A swollen underground stem, usually rounded, with buds or "eyes" from which new plants or tubers are produced, e.g., potato TUBEROUS ROOT A fleshy storage root having no buds but having a portion of old stem base attached to the neck, which bears the necessary buds, e.g., dahlia, tuberous begonia UNIFORMITY The state of being alike in size, form and color VARIETY A naturally occurring subordinate group or class of a species. (Variants of species and hybrids selected by man in cultivation are termed "cultivars." See Cultivar.) VEGETABLES Parts of a herbaceous plant that are used as food such as fruits, seeds, roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, leaves, or flower parts VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION Propagation by cuttings, division, grafting, etc., rather than by seed WILDFLOWER (either definition may be used) 1. a flowering herbaceous/ bulbous plant native to the region in which it is growing 2. a flowering herbaceous/ bulbous plant which grows independently of human action; either native or introduced and naturalized, but not relying upon cultivation by gardeners to survive. WOODY PLANT A plant whose stem forms a hard and fibrous material as it matures